Home About Sources Topics Background

Crimean texts


Archive menu

The Ben Smyth / Kinglake Archive


Introduction to the documents

XXth Regiment documents


The XXth at Inkerman The XXth at Sebastopol Welfare of the men Non-Crimean documents The Smyth appeal

The XXth at Inkerman


1.

CUL Add.9554/5/13

Posted 4th. June 1869
Captn. P. Geraghty

Montreal Canada
May 26th. 1869

Sir

I fear that what I can contribute to your History of the Battle of "Inkerman" will not amount to much, but, such as it is, I send with pleasure.

On the morning of the 5th. November 1854 the 20th. Regiment to which I then had the honor to belong, had a large party returned from the Trenches at a late hour. The Men had been trying to get some rest, when they were disturbed by an unusual sound of thousands of voices in the distance, followed by a continuous discharge of musketry. The "Assembly" sounded in every Camp, and the Troops turned out without loss of time; the arms &c of the Men returning from the Trenches had been placed in a spare tent; Muskets with Bayonets to fit were given to each man, as they had no time to find their own, and the Regiment was on the march to "Inkerman", in ten minutes after the "Alarm" had sounded. Before we expected it, we were in action (at about 7.30 AM). We formed line, and advanced to the right of the ground occupied by the 2nd. Division; many men were at this time, struck down by musketry. We were afterwards placed on a road leading to Sebastopol, and lined a wall or fence about 2 feet high, from behind which we fired into the Ravine below, where a large body of Russians were posted. (We had several men killed and wounded here.) We remained a considerable time at this place, until we were forced to retire at the double, owing to the unexpected appearance and advance, of large bodies of Russians on the front, and flanks; whom, on account of the dark morning, we could not see; until they were almost upon us; had it not been for the timely arrival of the French, my Regiment would have been severely handled. In returning we were divided, the left Wing under Major Crofton going in the direction of the Two Gun Battery, where the Guards fought so well. (I send you a Sergeant's account of what took place with this Wing.) To resume. The Regiment having turned out early, were without food nearly the whole day. I was so exhausted on retiring, that I could not double, but was obliged to go to the rear at a walk, much against my will; and succeeded in getting with the French Ranks. After we had passed through, we fortunately found a small supply of water, and biscuit we gladly partook of there; and after lighting my pipe I felt comparatively comfortable, & happy under the circumstances. I then collected all the men I could together, to join the Regiment, but was unable to find it, as in this Battle, we were all mixed up; I was ordered by a Staff Officer to join the 77th. with my men, but, at this moment a heavy artillery fire was opened upon us, and we were directed to lie down under cover of a small rise in the ground. Colonel now Lt. General Sir C. Windham K.C.B. was with us, we were well pounded here, and had some men killed and wounded. The Russians it appeared to us made us their especial Target, they had the range, and their round shot were too close to be pleasant; one shot struck the ground close to my left hip and bounded up again, thus near methought I was struck, another shot passed close to my face, and struck a 20th. Bandsman on the shoulder, (his name was Mouldes [?]) and killed him. Assistant Surgn. Wolsley of my Regiment was present and remarked that he must have died instantly, I may here say that Dr. Wolsley was always to be seen where there was the greatest danger, he volunteered for, and did duty in the Trenches every night his Regt. was ordered there, and by arrangement, left the Hospital duties to others. After a time we left this place, passing between the Limbers, and Guns of a Battery of Artillery in action; many shot passed over us, one struck off an artillery man's head, as he was sitting upon his Horse. Whilst on the March across the Field of Action with my men, a Staff Officer came up to me, and asked who had command of the party, I said I had, he told me to call for Volunteers, to go for the body General Cathcart, who had been killed; Sergt. Laughland Privates Burke Catlin & Callaghan stepped to the front, and brought in the body under a very heavy fire, & conveyed it to Camp. We now joined the 77th. Regt., who were formed in line to charge the Russians; but, the occasion did not offer, we remained in this position, until the close of the action, when we were called upon to assist in removing the wounded. It was a shocking sight to see men with one, or both legs shot off, some torn to pieces by fragments of shell, some Bayonetted, others shot with musketry, officers lying about in all directions dead, or wounded. After my return to Camp, the Regt. was ordered to parade, and the rolls called — during the campaign the Sergts. were obliged to call the roll from memory, as often during the night, we had to turn out in perfect darkness. On calling the roll of Company which numbered about 97, I did not find more than 20 men to answer their names, when absentees were called, the reply was, killed, missing, or wounded in Hospital, or in the Tents. There were so many wounded, thus the whole Camp was nearly transformed in to an Hospital.

I have no more to say on the 5th. Novr. 1854 being at that time but a Color Sergt., my knowledge of what occurred relates only, to what I saw, and my opportunities for making observation were limited, so much time has also elapsed, that other incidents may have come under my notice which I may have forgotten.

Should what I have written, be of any use, and in any way conduce to credit of my dear old Regt, in which I was born, and remained until 42 years of age, it will give me great satisfaction.

Believe me
Yrs. Faithfully
P. Geraghty Captn.
Town Major
Montreal


2.

CUL Add.9554/5/13

Sgt. Campbell's account of the part he took in the Battle of Inkerman.

On the 4th. Novr. 1854 a portion of the 20th. Regiment was detailed for duty in the Trenches, but they were posted on the road between the right of Greenhill and the Caves. During the day it was a continual succession of showers, and we found an acceptable shelter in the Caves, but after dark set in, it rained with a Vengeance, and in few minutes all hands were drenched to the skin, as we dare not leave the road to seek shelter. We were formed into two reliefs, and were in such a pitiable condition that Capt now Col Radcliffe requested Brigadier Torrens to allow him to detail the reliefs into three instead of two, as all seemed so quiet on the front. This could not be allowed although the Brigadier expressed his sorrow for the suffering of the Men. The Men would not unfold their Coats, as they would get them wet through, and would impede their movements should an attack be made. As it was impossible to sit or lay down in the mud, the men in groups were tramping the whole night and rejoiced when light of day made their appearance little dreaming how many of our poor fellows would be called to their account before that day passed away.

Whilst returning to camp firing was distinctly heard by us, but not much notice was taken as it was not at that time an uncommon thing for the whole of the Enemy's Batteries to open fire about our relief time arrived in Camp The Adjutant ordered us to remain under arms, and be ready for the Front After waiting a few minutes word came that in consequence of the deplorable state the men were in, we could unbelt for a few minutes, and be prepared to form the Quarter Guard, I spoke in a tone loud enough for the Officer in Charge (Lieut Dowling) to hear saying "We prefer going to the Front" Dowling immediately said "The men request to be led to the front and I would rather go too" He obtained this his last request for before another hour elapsed he was a Corpse The same volley that killed our General (Cathcart) ended the career of a gallant and promising Officer Lt. Dowling.

When permitted to proceed to the Front we doubled towards Inkerman, on passing the Wind Mill we saw a number of our own wounded, also Russian prisoners, being led in by parties of the Guards, we trod over the ground where our old Comrades of the 88th. had thrown off their Coats and Shakos to enable them to work freely — Then the Music of the bullets began to be heard distinctly and felt too, alas! for our poor fellows dropped one after another, and we could do nothing in return. Poor Colonel Crofton (since murdered) said This will not do, lie down, Men! — In a few moments I saw General Cunningham looking anxiously around he entered our midst and said "What Corps is this" I replied your own old Corps Sir "What said he the 20th. – up my lads and follow me," the General waving his sword and we after him, in the direction of the two Gun Battery, where we soon arrived, and found the Coldstreams fighting against fearful odds, and having expended their ammunition were about to retire When our fellows with such a Yell as a Russian never heard before, and many of them for the first and last time dashed in among them, the Volley, and the Bayonet, Butt, stones, rocks anything was good enough for them Had we continued at that play it would have been very well, but we must needs finish and we paid for it, not a man of the Rifle Subdivision of the Company to which I belonged, escaped without a wound.

Now this only concerns myself — I was severely wounded, and well cared for, every one knows how the day ended, and it should also be known that although the whole of the Regt. was not taken into action the remainder being in the Trenches, the casualties exceeded the number of any Corps engaged Guards excepted.

(Signed) James Campbell
Sgt. 20th. Regt.

Received a special reward
B.S.

Certified Copy
P Geraghty Capt.
Town Major


3.

[These extracts had been copied onto a sheet of notepaper headed "28, Hyde Park Place, Marble Arch, W." — Kinglake's address. The copyist inserted the remarks in square brackets, not the transcriber.]

Col. Radcliffe
Letter to his parents Novr. 6th. 1854

The action commenced yesterday morning at about 6.30 by the Russians moving suddenly in great force & attacking our extreme right & after many hours hand fighting we drove them back with great loss. What our own is I can't tell but I fear it is heavy. The 4th. Dn this time were put well in front & most gallantly did their duty. We, the XX, have one officer killed Lt Dowling & 6 wounded but I am thankful to say none severely. [Accounts of the wounds]

The action was fought entirely in low oak copse over very broken ground so that mounted officers were a very conspicuous mark. I can only give you a slight account of that part of the battle where I was for from the brushwood & uneven ground it was impossible to see but a very little distance on either side, although the length of the line engaged must have been nearly if not quite 2 miles. Sharpe & I came out of the trenches at 20 minutes to 6 yesterday morning after a most wretched nights rain & turned in determined to sleep for some hours at least. We had not been there half an hour when the assembly sounded & we marched away to the right without having had a morsel of breakfast or even taking anything with us for I thought it was only an affair with the pickets but we did not return until 5 p.m.

When we got close to the firing we were ordered to support the Guards on the extreme right who were hard pressed by the Russians in great numbers, & in one minute we were in the thick of it, & together drove them right down into the valley of Inkerman. We were all mixed up in a kind of skirmishing order & as too often the case pursued them too far. Butler James & I were coming back slowly & had just mounted a very steep hill where there was an earthwork [the Sandbag battery] wh we expected to find occupied by our troops, when to our immense surprise & dismay we saw a large body of Russians in it & extended some way outside of it to the right. We had not more than 100 men of different corps in sight, & these were scattered about the face of the hill. I thought if we were not shot we must inevitably be taken prisoners & so we should have been had the Russians come down (I was within 20 yards of the redoubt), but they contented themselves with firing at us & we sheltered ourselves as well as we could under the side of the hill wh rather favoured us & we made our way to where we expected to find our troops. Up to this time I had carried a Minié rifle wh I had picked up at the commencement, & been most diligently firing & intending to carry some [q. word wanting] thinking all was over, so I dropped it & drew my pistol. I fired one barrel at a man who was in the act of firing & then hastened on all of us running the gauntlet of their fire for nearly 1/2 a mile (it seemed longer to me) when to our great joy a French column appeared on the top hill between us & the Gentlemen shooting at us & gave us breathing time to join our forces. After this we had a most heavy fire of shot & shell & some musketry but it did us but very little damage as we were well in front again. This is but a short & confused account of what I saw but I cant write it in full. X X X I forgot to say that all our ammunition was expended when we retired. X X X I have lost in my company 9 killed & 23 wounded. We went into action 497 bayonets & came out 330. X X I have this morning visited the Hospital & seen how our brave men can bear their wounds. It is a lesson indeed.


4.

[The heading of this document is in a different hand to the rest of the copy. The copyist inserted the remarks in square brackets, not the transcriber. The remainder of the extract is in the next section at item 24.]

Extracts from Diary of Col Radcliffe XXth. Regt.

4th Novr. 1854. Take the reinforcements at 5 p.m. from Anstey. Dowling & I put out in front of the trenches. Much rain & no shelter. Very miserable. Relieved at 1 a.m. Moved to Greenhill. Major Wynne 68th. in command. Back to tents at 5.30 a.m.

Novr. 5th Sunday (20th day) Not been in bed an hour when the assembly sounded & are all turned out & marched to the right of our position. The Russians attacked us in great force & we ordered to relieve [q. to support] the Guards. The action was over most broken ground covered with oak brushwood, & we advanced in extended order & drove the enemy down over the hill & followed them too far. Our ammunition expended & we are quietly returning when just as we reached a redoubt on the top of the hill [the Sandbag battery] a heavy column of Russians appeared where we expected to find our own troops. Butler Hay, James & myself with about 100 men were the only people in sight so we had to run, but it was difficult to determine which way. We skirted the side of the hill ½ a mile midst a perfect shower of bullets & when quite blown a French regt came up between us & the Russians. That was a most cheery sight indeed. Got up the hill & under a little wall where there were some Guards & a few men of all corps. A Battery of artillery making beautiful practice at us. The Chasseurs de Vincennes & the Zouaves went to the front. We formed & advanced to support skirmishers between a French & Russian battery. Bennett wounded there, Wood under the wall. After some time moved on to the right attack, & then back to Camp. Our Division Staff suffered severely. Gen Cathcart Gen Goldie & Col Seymour killed, Gen Torrens & Major Maitland wounded. Our regmt one officer poor Dowling killed & seven officers (two were doing their duty contused). Crofton Horn Sharpe Bennett. Sharpe and Padfield contused. None of the above dangerously. Only 12,000 of the allies engaged. The enemy numbered between 30 & 40 thousand at least.

6th. (21st day) Mustered my company, 9 killed, 23 wounded, & one missing. The regmt went into action 497 bayonets & came out 330.


5.

Buckley Hall, Northamptonshire
Rugby

31st March 1869

Sir

Few things would afford me more satisfaction than that of being able to contribute information regarding the battle of Inkermann & on the highly interesting subject of the history on which you are now engaged, but I must prepare you for disappointment as to most of the details of that action.

As regards the small force under my comd. at the commencement of the attack, it consisted of only a portion of the 20th Regt., the remainder of which was employed in the trenches the previous night, though it subsequently joined in the Field of Inkermann. This small force was, after a little fighting, augmented by a few straggling soldiers from various corps, & at the onset managed to maintain its ground, (by what fortuitous circumstances I have never been able exactly to comprehend,) against a very superior Russian Force probably by the latter being panic stricken at the loss of their Chief (Genl. Simonoff [sic, meaning Soimonoff], killed early in the day. It was said that this General had advanced his Division up the wrong side of a ravine & impassable to troops, thus giving the English the advantage of reaching him with their minnies while he was unable to advance within reach of them with smooth bores, compelling him at the same time to open fire before the proper time & thus as it were loosening the key stone of the battle.

In due corse [sic] of time 2 dense masses of Russian columns were observed advancing towards us & their overpowering numbers rendered retirement necessary, which was performed with order and steadiness, and it was during this retirement that we were joined by, I think, about 4 companies of French Chasseurs, who formed up on our right & we all again advanced. It was in vain we did so the enemy was overpowering, in vain the french drum beat the pas de charge & the rappel & the French and English Officers leading their men on many paces in advance of the soldiers. It was altogether a vain attempt & perhaps hardly worth the trial. Retirement again took place by word of comd., the men complaining of shortness of ammunition. During this retirement our French companies left us probably called away, & an incident here occurred, which for a time stopped my Field duties.

I was struck in the left thigh by a musket shot which compelled me for a time to withdraw to the nearest bush, unobserved by my men & in the absence of doctors, (unhappily already too much engaged elsewhere with the wounded,) there to examine the extent of the injury; on finding no artery cut, I hobbled on to rejoin my force.

I mention this circumstance together with that of another wound recd. later in the action, in explanation of my inability to give a more consecutive account of the details & events of that day. Shortly after emerging from my bush another incident of no very pleasing nature presented itself. A French Field gun with 8 horses had been drawn up near this spot apparently for the purpose of unlimbering for action, when a round shot from the enemy passed clean through the bodies of the two horses immediately in front of the wheelers, plentifully bespattering me with the débris of the poor animals, who were detached with incredible alacrity, the leading horses hooked on & the gun galloped off with out of the line of the enemy's fire in almost as short a time as it takes to narrate the circumstance.

After a time, probably between 2 & 3 o'clock seeing H R H the Duke of Cambridge I hobbled up to him for further instructions which were as follows, "On to the front without delay." Having in obedience to these orders advanced some distance, I ordered my troops to lie down in an undulating ground by which they were protected from the fire of the enemy's batteries & proceeded alone to the front. Meeting a Sergeant of the 88th. Regt., I think, & telling of my disposable force left in the ravine, he informed me that unless with the minnie rifle the men could be of no service, that all the Russians were in full retreat for Sevastopol and that only a few men with minnies were in front, picking off such of the Russians as were lagging behind the main body in retreat.

On my return I found one of my captains (Capt. Bennett) had been severely wounded in the spine by a musket shot while lying on the ground.

It was here discovered that several Russian soldiers lay concealed in the surrounding bushes, these were of course immediately made prisoners of, they threw down their arms & voluntarily emptied their pockets of their ammunition. They were a miserable and dejected looking set of beings to the number of about 40 & probably of that type of Harpies that hovers about the battle Field at night for the vile purpose of plundering the dead & dying.

About 4 PM I moved my force towards Camp, mounting a bat pony kind [sic] sent for me by Colonel Farren of the 47th. Regt. to enable me to return with it.—

In conclusion I cannot refrain from again bearing testimony to the gallantry of the Officers of the 20th. Regt. under my immediate comd. on that auspicious occasion, and I specially refer you to General Sir John Pennefather who will not only accord the same testimony to the gallant fellows of my late Regt., but from his personal observation of the fearful aspect of affairs at the commencement of that great fight, give you much information worthy of being noted down, much of which he has told me but I have forgotten.

My horse was killed under me in less than an hour after the attack.

I beg to apologize for this long letter containing so little of the information which you require, and also to remark that I was most unexpectedly called on to furnish a despatch after the battle of Inkermann, in consequence of the Death of Sir Geo. Cathcart, the mortal wound of Genl. Goldie & the severe & dangerous wound of Genl. Torrens, leaving me the next senior officer with the 4th. Division. Had I been better prepared for this duty I might have written a more lucid account thereof.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your very Obdt. Servant
Fred. Horn
M Genl.

A W Kinglake Esqr.


6.

General Horn

Inkerman 16th April '69

1. Strength1. Says he sure [?] the 150 mentd in his report must be right & that he must have looked at the "State"
2. Time2. Cannot say
3. Compare his note with his reports to Head Quarters3. In all his communication with me he adheres to his note to me as against his report of the 6th of November in which he says — we read the passage several times — he must have transposed the circumstances. He says that there was no successful charge during the period of his having the French alongside him. (They were on his proper right he says.)
4. Street4. Street is in the army. Eveleigh [sic - meaning Evelegh] now Br. Gl. in a barrack station [?] in Ireland at the Curragh he thinks. Vaughan is in the regiment 20th still.
5. Johnson 

He says when he made his charge his troops gave the "Minden yell" — a peculiar unearthly yell within a high note not similar to least [?] to either "hurrahs" or any any [?] hunting sounds, or to anything else that he could think of. He said it belonged to the regiment & he believed the [illegible] deliberately took pains to have it practised. The column could not be seen very clearly but — it was on the edge of a ravine — the Enemy ravine [?] was seen to be retreating in confusion & was fired into very effectively by his men. "Of regiments the most distinguished" the Duke once said on the presentation of colours, I regard it of regiments the most distinguished, & this he justified by saying that it had won all its [illegible] to Peninsula with one battalion. It was a perfect regiment —[Half dozen words indiscernible.] the men said we have no ammunition his [?], he said hang the ammunition! & order them charge.

I'll have no running — when you retire, pull [?] section by word of command.

The Chasseurs had one drum. The Officers went forward splendidly. Amongst others a grotesquely corpulent pot bellied Captain who vehemently urged on the men with his shako uplifted on the point of his sword.

He had an impression that the Russians were much primed with drink. Quantities of their bottles scattered over the field.


7.

21 April

Sir

In reply to yours of the 19th received this day — I beg to state that I should be most happy to convey to you any information which lies in my power or to assist you in any way in your great work.

I shall be at St James on Friday & will call at 28, Hyde Park Place, or if that will not suit I am to be found almost at all hours at the Gen Post office.

I am, Sir
Most respectfully &c &c
Arthur Rule
Sergt. Major 49th. Mx.R.V.


8.

[The following document is 3 pages of notes made by Kinglake at an interview with Sgt-Maj Rule.
It is very faint, and many words are indistinguishable.
The outside of the document is annotated:
"Sergeant-Major Arthur Rule 20th Regt. Friday 23rd April" and "Sergeant-Major Rule 20th Regt Right wing"]

Sergeant-Major Rule
20th Regt. April 23, '69

1. What wing?1. [illegible] opposite it [illegible] Crofton [illegible]
2. Where posted before the battle?2. In the trenches.
3. Strength?3.
4. If Crofton's wing, what he saw when approaching the sandbag? 
5. The part taken by the wing in the attack? 
6. After [illegible] to rush down?6. Upon this he was successful & made himself perfectly intelligible to the man of all others who best knew the ground, i.e. to P Herbert [?] who chanced to be here. It seems he or those with him having got down the hill found themselves intercepted by the Russians from the path which wd. have let them hasten simply towards the camp of the 2nd division & therefore went down to the [illegible] & followed the path which ran alongside it till being got to the foot of the next ravine, & got back through that.
Says Cathcart ordered the men to [illegible] & fire, but had a faint voice & did not make himself heard.

9.

Bideford
N. Devon
April 29th

My dear Sir

Your letter unfortunately did not come in time to reach me before I left town or I would have called on you; during such a contest as Inkermann where, owing to the darkness of the day and the nature of the ground it was difficult to see beyond a very short distance, one's reminiscences are confined to what actually happened within a small circle. In a couple of days I shall meet Colonel Radcliffe a 20th man who was captain of the company to which I belonged and I will send you his account as well as mine. I went into action with the first half of the regiment Radcliffe with the second and as our versions are probably different, you will be able to see what was going on in different parts of the field.

Yours very sincerely
H J Ames

Late Capt 20th.

A W Kinglake Esq.


10.

Royal Marine Barracks
Plymouth May 16th. 1855

My dear Colonel

Two Brass drums found by our corps on the Field of "Inkermann" have been forwarded to the Division under my command — one is Russian the other English. On taking the Hoops off the latter we discover two "XX" and some nearly obliterated letters painted above, and "Egypt" and "Peninsula" below the Royal Arms — I need not say that it will afford us great satisfaction to return it should it belong to your Regiment.

Believe me
Very faithfully yrs
J K Coryton


11.

Curragh Camp
January 29th

Dear Sir

Since writing to you an account of the part taken by the 20th. Regiment in the battle of Inkerman, I have accidentally heard that the 57th. Regiment are under the impression that theirs were the only colours present at the battle. I take the liberty therefore of writing to you to correct this impression, and to state that the colours of the 20th. were carried through the action by Lieut Hay now Lt. Col. Hay Boyd of Ayrshire, by the late Captain Parkinson, by Ens Hikewick [?] who was shot wearing the colour belt and afterwards died at Scutari (I believe) and by myself.

Apologising for troubling you.
I remain
Dear Sir
Yours truly,
Hector Vaughan
Captain 20th Regt.


12.

Curragh Camp
February 4th.

Dear Sir

The number of men actively engaged at Inkerman is a difficult question for me to answer with certainty as at the time I had nothing to do with returns. I know that the day following the battle I recorded my impressions in my note book and estimated the numbers actually engaged as from 300 to 400 probably the truth lies between these two or say 350. On Mr. Whale your information appears very correct Capt Steevens and Lieut Peard being in the trenches with the remainder of the Regiment I mentioned the names of the officers who to my knowledge carried the colours I think there was one other whose name I cannot call to mind I was thus exact in order that my testimony could not admit of dispute In my former letter I stated that when the French line wavered, it was rallied by a French officer running to the front with his cap upon his sword and being joined by several others English and French. For the above reason I now add that of these Officers two belonged to the XX the first being myself the second the late Captain Parkinson. It was calculated at the time that of the men engaged one out of three were killed or wounded & that of 14 Officers engaged 9 were killed or wounded The horses of Col Horn Major Crofton and Adjutant Padfield were shot Although the regiment does not bear Balaclava on its colours, we lost two men one named Lynch being struck by a round shot. I was not there myself. I was present at the attack on the Redan on the 18th June, and at that of the 2nd September (in reserve) and therefore, shall be able to furnish you with any information you may require regarding the part taken by the XX in each, in the absence of better

I remain
Dear Sir
Yours truly
H B Vaughan


13.

[The following letter is written on notepaper headed with a monogram "HV".]

Croxtead House
Farnborough
Hants
April 30th 69

Sir

In apologising for the delay which has occurred in replying to your letter I beg to apprise you that it is owing to my having been engaged in searching for an old note book in which I had jotted down some facts connected with the battle of Inkerman on the day after it took place. Having found it I beg to forward you some extracts from it to which I have subjoined some recollections.

In doing so I fear that I have occupied too great a space in comparison with the value of the facts I relate, but on attempting to curtail my narrative of the events of which I was an eyewitness I found that the obscurity which resulted from my attempt was a worse error than the tediousness I wished to avoid. Therefore I determined to let my original narrative stand, as in the work you are writing circumstances however slight in themselves may enable you to arrive at the progress of the battle in various parts of the field. I very much regret that I had some time previously lost my watch so that I am unable to state the hour at which the various events took place.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Yours very faithfully
Hector Vaughan


14.

[The following letter is written on notepaper headed with a monogram "HV".]

CUL Add.9554/5/12

Croxstead House
Farnborough
Hants
May 2nd
[inserted in a different hand: "1869" ]

Sir

In reply to your letter asking me to point out as nearly as possible where the first charge of the XX and that of ourselves and the French combined took place

I fear I cannot exactly fix in my mind the position of the picquet house you mention,

I will however endeavour to recall the incidents as they occur to my memory but as what I now write is from recollection alone it will have to be received with caution

Our first charge commenced past some ground upon which stood a couple of field pieces. Not firing I believe for want of ammunition.

The course we pursued was to the right of and parallel with the road and led us towards the bottom of the ravine terminating in the quarries gradually we kept fighting towards our left and finally reached the road itself. It was here that we became broken up into small parties, mine being upon the road itself and pressing a little to its left. I do not believe that we descended the road very many hundred yards below this point when we first struck it the scarified sides of the quarries on our right being just visible, and if I am right it was at the very next turn we met the large Russian Column — it was upon first reaching the road that the Russian battery opened upon us from the heights on our left it was a regular plunging fire. It was here too that I saw the Guards and the other Wing of my regt. and here that Lieut Johnson proposed to charge.

It was during our retreat from this point that I have a hazy recollection of passing through the gaps of a broken wall across the road, can it have been the one belonging to the picquet house?

It must be remembered that at this moment my whole attention must have been concentrated upon my own men and the Russian Column in front if it really existed.

It was about 150 yards behind this that the French were forming line It is quite possible that as my party advanced to the right of and only occupied the road for a short time before our retreat, we may have cut into the road below the picquet house and then only encountered its wall when retreating

When afterwards charging with the French we bore still more to the right than before. In fact along the level ground on the ridge, during this advance the road was far below us to the left and we kept firing into the dense masses of the Russians upon it as well as upon the (4 deep) line in our front.

I believe I stated to you that we could rarely see more than 100 yds. in front owing to the rain and smoke.

This was the utmost extent of our vision for I believe for a great part of the battle, we could not distinguish objects at half that distance.

We were all so ignorant of the ground that when the quarries loomed upon us we mistook them for the commencement of the town of Sebastopol

I believe that some of the men of the other wing of the regt. actually fought in the quarries

Yours very truly
H B Vaughan


15.

[The following letter is written on notepaper headed with a monogram "HV".]

Croxtead House
FarnboroughHants
May 4th

Sir

In continuation of my letter of yesterday. It occurred that by questioning one of the sergeants of my regiment who was wounded at Inkerman, I might be able to furnish you with information concerning the exact place where the events I described took place. I saw him this morning on parade questioned him and am happy to say his statements entirely corroborate my views, as follows.

Color Sergeant George Burton states.

"We formed line as soon as we came under fire and charged down on the right of the road got over a wall of loose stones across it and then advanced beyond it about 200 or 300 yards, and were then driven back by a Column of Russians and recrossed the wall.

We met the French advancing about 150 yards behind this wall when I was wounded.

The circumstance is impressed upon my memory as the left hand man of the leading company was shot in the eye whilst they (M??????ck) were forming line. [There is a piece torn from the top of the page.]

I believe there was a picquet house attached to the wall."

I may add that I elicited this information without putting a single leading question, beyond asking if he recollected a stone wall across the road where we charged? And, what caused us to retire?

I remain Sir
Your obedient servant
H B Vaughan


16.

Sydney, Plympton, Devon
April 1st 1869

Sir

In answer to yours of the 29th Ulto. I beg to state that the few memoranda & letters I wrote at the time of the Battle of "Inkermann" I have not at this moment at hand to refer to — I hope to be in Town about the middle of next month, & if not then too late for your purpose would have much pleasure in showing them to you for your consideration —

I should add the Memo's are what merely came under my own notice & therefore very limited as regards the general action.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Your obedt. Servant
W.P. Radcliffe
Colonel

A W Kinglake Esqu
&c &c&c


17.

Buckley Hall, Northamptonshire
Rugby
2nd. April 1869

Sir

I am very glad you intend writing to general Sir Jns [?] Pennefather as I remember he told me he observed the very commencement of the battle of Inkerman & that the aspect of affairs were at that time of such an awful nature that he hardly thought other than that the English would be driven into the sea or all made prisoners.

He also told me many other things, how matters improved as the day wore on but I have forgotten them.

I think there are few men with quicker eye soldiers & fighting than Sir John & perhaps not one in possession of so much information as he regarding the fight on the 5th November 1855 [sic].

If you think it necessary you could mention my name as having recommended his being applied to for information.

I shall be in London on the 9th. of this month & will call on you on Sunday afternoon as I shall lunch in Glocester [sic] Square on that day.

I am
Sir
Your very obdt. Servant
Fred. Horn

A W Kinglake Esqr


18.

April 4th /69

Sydney
Plympton, Devon

Sir

In yours of the 2nd. Inst. you mention the "middle of this month" as the time I stated I should be in Town. I think on referring to my note you will find that I wrote "next" month (May), & I now allude to it only to prevent any misunderstanding.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Very faithfully yours
Pollexfen Radcliffe

A W Kinglake Esq
&c &c


19.

May 26th/69

Sir

In answer to yours of the 24th. Inst. I think I may safely say that I shall remain in Town till the latter end of next month — I must however beg you will be prepared to find that the few notes I made at the time are not likely to prove of much service to the work on which you are engaged.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Yours very faithfully
W. P. Radcliffe

A.W. Kinglake Esqr.
&c &c
Wilton House
Taunton


20.

CUL Add.9554/5/14

Hazelgrove House
Ilchester

April 4th

My dear Mr Kinglake

My Mother forwarded me yr. letter a few days ago. & I shewed it to Mrs Crofton — she will write to you herself in a few days & forward you the few papers & letters she has in her possession referring to the 20th. regiment at the Battle of Inkerman but owing to poor Col Crofton having been shot through the right hand — he was unable to write anything after the Battle, so she has very few. I hope to see my mother down here next week. We have been away a long time from each other. Which is not often the case I trust you enjoyed yr. time in Paris & had better weather than we have been having in England I shall be back in London in May when I hope we may meet.

Believe me
Ever yrs sincerely
Margt Berners


21.

CUL Add.9554/5/15

Hazelgrove House
Ilchester

April 10th

Dear Mr Kinglake

Hearing from Mrs Berners that you wish for any information I could give, with regard to the Wing of the 20th. regt. commanded by my husband at the battle of Inkerman, I write to tell you all I know, which I much regret is so little for owing to Col Crofton having been very badly wounded in the right hand, as well as in the neck, he was of course unable to write to me, & was sent to Scutari, I think, the day after the battle, & I only heard of his welfare while, in the Hospital, from one of his brother officers, who most kindly to write to me. I enclose a letter from General Thomas, an old friend & former commanding officer of my husbands, which will tell you all I know of what happened, also a paper sent by him, when he had been trying to get common justice rendered to my husband for his services, for owing to all the snr. officers of 4th. Division being either killed or wounded there was no one to send in a proper report to Lord Raglan, & therefore Col Crofton's name was not mentioned as it should have been, as being in command of the Wing that came to the assistance of the Guards. After the lapse of so many years, I hardly like to trust to my memory for more particulars of the events of the 5th. of Novr. but can feel quite sure that what Gen Thomas states in his letter as hearing from Sir C Yorke is the fact, tho' the General who was much annoyed at the way my husband had been treated, seems to want to hear more, but what his letter says, is what took place, & it was while charging the Russians that my husband had his revolver shot out of his hand, which was much shattered, tho not till he had killed one & wounded others of the enemy. He at the same time was wounded just below the neck, had his knee grazed by a bullet, & his horse shot through the neck. After which he was carried to the rear, but not very far, for while waiting his time to be attended by a doctor, a man beside him was killed. Col Horn, who commanded the 20th, had gone to the front with a wing of the regiment on the first alarm, & my husband if I remember, came in from the trenches & was at once ordered up with all the men he could collect. Col Horn came out the snr. Officer of the 4th. Division, in fact brought it out of action, but failed to see his then position & sent in no proper report. I have heard it said that Lord West of the 21st. who commanded his own regt. finding Col Horn had failed in sending in the proper report, sent one for his own regt. If there is anything more that I can tell you, pray let me know, & I shall always feel much indebted to you, for any mention you make of my dear husband's name, which may render justice to him, even at this late hour.

I remain
Yours very truly
Georgiana Crofton


22.

CUL Add.9554/5/16

79 Eccleston Sqr
London
October 26th 1856

My dear Crofton

Your claims have been long in my thoughts with an anxiety to obtain justice for you, and I have just come from Sir Charles Yorke with whom I discussed the subject in full —.

He seemed quite sensible of your claims to a CB but said – what could we do The Officers of the 4th. Division were never brought under the notice of the Home authorities, & Colonel Crofton's name in particular was never named to us, notwithstanding which we offered him employment which he very properly declined, as unable from his wounds to perform the required duties —

I have endeavoured to obtain information from various quarters of what did actually occur and all I can learn is as follows —

That Colonel Crofton formed such men as came from the Trenches amounting to about 5 [?] Companies, & moved direct towards where he heard the firing was very sharp & increasing — he met General Brown who ordered him to proceed to the "Left" , but a little afterwards Col Macdonald the Duke's ADC came up & asked who Commanded this Regt, & upon his replying that he did, he ordered him to proceed instantly to the support of the Guards which he said indeed requires it, being hardly pressed — "I accordingly formed line, – & instantly charged & drove 2 Columns of Russians before us like sheep, & was then severely wounded ; now My dear Crofton correct this & give me a plain unvarnished statement & I will give it in person to the Duke, and the sooner the better, as [I am] making every possible [case that you should get] the CB on the ground of having brought the Regt. out of Action — upon this subject you can state what you know & upon all points give me all possible information & I shall do every thing to carry it for you.

We return tomorrow morng. to Trumpington Hall Cambridge, for a week, therefore address me there.

In haste, believe me
Yours [] truly
[] Thomas

[The paper is damaged, but what remains of the signature could be "Thomas". In another hand there remains "eneral" and "nel of the XX Regt."]


23.

17, Bayswater Terrace
Kensington Gardens, W

Nov 8 1890

Dear Sir

I have the honour to acknowledge the safe arrival of the Inkerman Papers which you have been so good as to return to me, & also of your very kind letter which, be sure, I fully appreciate.

I am much pleased to learn that financially the publication of the Record has been a success.

I have the honour to be
Dear Sir
Very faithfully yours
A W Kinglake

To B. Smyth Esqr
Lt. Quarter Master XX Regiment
1st. Lancashire Fusiliers
&c &c &c


The XXth at Inkerman The XXth at Sebastopol Welfare of the men Non-Crimean documents The Smyth appeal

The XXth at Sebastopol


24.

[The heading of the next document is in a different hand to the rest of the copy. The copyist inserted the remarks in square brackets, not the transcriber. The first part of the extract is in the previous section at item 4.]

Extracts from Diary of Col Radcliffe XXth. Regt.

17th June 1855. Orders out for showing tomorrow. French attack Malakoff first, if successful, we storm Redan. Light, 2nd, & 4th Divisions in 3 columns of 400 men each. The 3rd Division to Barrack & Garden. 57th storm, we XXth follow them close to fill in the ditch. The remainder support & reserve. May the Almighty strengthen our arms & grant us victory. X X X Paraded at 12 midnight & marched to right attack. After some delay each man had a pickaxe & shovel given him, & 200 had to take gabions as well. Trenches so crowded with the greatest difficulty we cd get on at all.

Monday 18th June. Soon after daylight musketry on the right the French attacking Malakoff. We then advanced to the Redan under a fearful fire of grape & musquetry, & had no way of getting out of the trench except by file. Men & officers swept down by dozens. Ladders & woolbags could not get up to the ditch. In the meantime the French had been repulsed, & we did not renew the attack. We ought not to have commenced as the French had not held the Tower, & from a mistake about a rocket the attack was made some hours before it was intended. A most sad business. Our loss in officers & men very great from the short time it lasted.

[There follows accounts of casualties amongst officers]


25.

[This document is a single sheet. It begins on the front side, written normally across the page in portrait alignment. The sheet is then folded vertically, and turned landscape fashion. The document continues on one half of the reverse. It is then turned back again to portrait for the covering note and footnote.]

Copy

(no. 34)
Confidential
Memorandum

Head Quarters before Sebastopol
5th. July 1855

The Troops in the Trenches, Right Attack, should be so posted as to be able, in the event of an Enemy making a Sortie with a large body of troops, successfully to repulse him on whichever point he may make his attack; which in all probability would be on one or both Flanks. Under that supposition, the Guards of the Trenches should be proportioned accordingly, and the greater number stationed on the Right Flank, this being the most exposed, or most open to an Attack.

The Officer Commanding on this Flank, should have his attention directed to the support which he is to afford to the Left Flank of the of the [sic] French Troops, should the Enemy move in force against the Mamelon, or attempt to move round to its rear by the Ravine: If attacked on his own front, he must resist every attempt the enemy may make to force in, and if he should try to push through the centre, the Officer Commanding will cause his Posts stationed in that part to fall back upon him at the small knoll in front of No. 8 Mortar Battery, showing a front facing to the centre, and bearing upon the left Flank of the Enemy, leaving his front to be opposed by the men stationed in the 3rd. Parallel and the Batteries in its rear.

The Left of our Attack may expect to be assailed at the same time that the Right may find itself engaged with the Enemy; any large body of men attacking the left advance, will move out by the left flank of the Redan, and move along the Glacis so as to get into the rear of our advanced Work. As there are several lines of Intrenchments here, the Guard on the Trenches should be so stationed that the men in the rear work will be ready and able to fire upon the Enemy, should he have forced the line in in their front, it being of very great importance that the enemy should not gain even temporary possession of any of these Works; they must therefore be defended to the uttermost. Should the Enemy attempt to push in by the centre, the men stationed in the Trenches on the right of the Advance should retire upon the Quarries, showing a front to the Enemy's Right Flank.

It is considered that if these instructions are strictly complied with, and that the Officers of all Ranks have their duties previously clearly explained to them, the Enemy will meet with such a powerful Fire on both Flanks as will prevent him from forcing the centre.

The Third Parallel is to be manned in such parts only as the Commanding Officer may consider necessary, taking care not to place any men in front of the Artillery in Batteries 9.13.14 and 17. It will be necessary that the General Officer should explain to the Officers of the Royal Artillery stationed in these Batteries, what his arrangements for defence are to be, and to make the necessary regulations about firing.

The General Officer on duty to make himself acquainted where the French advanced posts are stationed; this should be communicated to the Officer Commanding in the Right Advance and also to the Officers of the Royal Artillery, in order that no mistakes may occur.

— — — Artillery — — —

The Guns in every Battery which can play upon the ground between the salient angle of the Redan and Malakoff should before sun-set be laid upon some particular point or object, loaded, and ready to fire the instant an Alarm takes place, or according to the orders the General Officer may have given to him, by a brisk, well-sustained and well directed Fire. — Battery No. 17 will be a very important one to fire upon any column or Body of Troops moving in front of Malakoff also advancing against the Mamelon. — The Artillery on the Left Attack must also be prepared to Fire smartly upon the Glacis of the right face of the Redan, should the Enemy move out in that direction. The advanced Parallel should every night have good marksmen stationed in it, and Officers in Command of them should have full directions what they are to do. Those in the right Parallel to take care and observe well before dusk the direction of the advanced works on the Right Attack, so that nothing may take place to injure or annoy the men stationed in those Works. The General Officer on duty in the Left Attack should pay particular attention to his advance, taking care that his orders are strictly and fully attended to by the Officer stationed there. What is required is, that a steady and well directed Fire be kept if the enemy turns out by the Right of the Redan.

(signed) Harry D Jones Major General Cmdg. Royal Engineers


Camp 4th Division
6th. July 1855

Sir

I am directed to request you will make a copy of the enclosed confidential Memo which you will retain for your own satisfaction and return the original to me.

I have the honor to be Sir your obedient humble servant
Hugh S Smith Maj
Aag


The General Officer on duty in the Right Attack to take all necessary precautions for securing his left Flank in the Piquet House Ravine

approved
(signed) J Simpson
Lt. General Commanding


The XXth at Inkerman The XXth at Sebastopol Welfare of the men Non-Crimean documents The Smyth appeal

Welfare of the men


26.

Scutari
December 12 1854

Sir

Having been instructed by the Duke of Newcastle to make certain enquiries into the condition of the sick and wounded Officers and soldiers of the British Army in the East, we have requested the Principal Medical Officer in charge of your regiment to favour us with information on the several heads set forth in the enclosed paper.

As many of the matters in question may be within your immediate knowledge, we shall feel obliged by your giving us replies to as many of the queries as can answer [sic]. We shall also feel obliged by any further information which you can give us bearing in any way upon the subject.

We have the honor to be
Sir
Your obedient servants
A Cumming
P Benson Maxwell
P Sinclair Laing

The Officer Commanding
The 20th Regt.
You are requested to send your reply to the Post Office Balaklava.


27.

Scutari,
December

Sir

Having been instructed by the Duke of Newcastle to make certain enquiries into the condition of the sick and wounded Officers and soldiers of the British Army in the East, we have to request that you will favour us at your earliest convenience with the following information.—

  1. The number of Medical Officers now present with your Regiment stating their names and rank.
  2. The number of Orderlies and other Hospital attendants employed and their general fitness for their duties in that capacity.
  3. The number of tents supplied for hospital accommodation and your opinion as to its sufficiency.
  4. The quality and nature of bed and bedding supplied for each patient together with your opinion as to its sufficiency also the number of close stools, bed pans urinal and other such conveniencies.
  5. General nature and average quantity of medicines and medical comforts usually kept with the Regt?
  6. The supply of surgical instruments & the means of keeping them in order and repair?
  7. The means of cooking hospital rations and extras and the adequacy or inadequacy of such means
  8. The means of carriage supplied for the sick and wounded in the Field, for hospital tents and stores, medicines, medical comforts, provisions and surgical instruments, materials and appliances?
  9. Is the number of Medical Officers Orderlies or other hospital attendants under you sufficient? If not, have you at any time applied for more? And if so, what was the result of your application?
  10. Have you been unable at any time since the landing of your Regiment in the Crimea, and if so how often or how long on each occasion to the best of your recollection to procure on requisition within the ordinary and proper time for obtaining such things as is a supply of any wanted?
    • Medicines
    • Surgical instruments, or the repair of them
    • Surgical materials and appliances
    • Medical comforts
    • Hospital furniture and conveniences
    • Provisions for the use of the hospital
  11. Have you on any occasion since the landing of your regiment in the Crimea been obliged to procure from other quarters than the Purveyor or Apothecary any articles comprised under the heads mentioned in the last question, if so state from what quarter you procured them and what the articles were.

We shall feel obliged by any further information and suggestions you can give us bearing in any way upon the above questions.

We have the honor to be
Sir
Your Obedient Servants


28.

Camp before Sebastopol, 30th. December 1854

Gentlemen

In reply to your letter of the 12th. inst. permit me to state that I consider it needless for me to attempt to answer all the various queries contained in a document which accompanied that communication, the Surgeon of the 20th. Regt. having more accurately replied to them than I was able to do.

It is, however, my duty when called upon to afford all the information in my power on the subject to which it refers, and in doing so in a general way I cannot but deplore the sad want of better arrangements for the restoration of the sick and wounded of the Regiment under my command and the lamentable results therefrom.

The Ambulance department, (from what particular cause I will not here attempt to account for), has been next to useless since its establishment in the Crimea, the sick and wounded were in most instances conveyed to Balaclava in jolting Arabas, on the ambulance mules of our allies the French who kindly lent them, and on dragoon chargers, (a singular mode of conveying an enfeebled patient 6 miles, who perhaps even in health had never before mounted a horse.

There has been throughout the Campaign a sad deficiency of tents for the hospital, and the sick have been much exposed in consequence.

The surgeon reports to me the want of one of the most useful of medicines where the prevailing sickness is bowel complaint, viz, opium but the chief cause of this prevalent complaint, all seem to agree, arises from the hard work, exposure to inclement weather, and the hitherto difficulty in obtaining proper transport for the comforts of the Troops from Balaclava, and large fatigue parties of soldiers have in addition to their already overworked condition been compelled to wade through the mud to the above named place for the purpose of bringing up their own rations, which the Commissariat department failed to do and all other Necessaries Medical Comforts and Regimental stores &c &c

I now hear that these poor fellows are expected to carry their own huts when they arrive in the Crimea.

There are no bat horses that I can find allotted to the 4th. Division and hence Officers Chargers and private horses have been used to carry the men's rations and latterly dragoon horses have also assisted the Commissariat department but in a very trifling way. I have very little hesitation in saying that due to this sad mismanagement as to the establishment of proper transport for the troops between the Camp and Balaclava much of the prevalent sickness and mortality is attributable.

I have the honor to be
Gentlemen
Your most Obedient & Humble Servant
Fred. Horn
Col. & Lt.Col. 20th. Regt. Comdg.

A Cumming Esqr RAH [?]
P Benson Maxwell Esqr.
P G Laing Esqr.
Balaclava

PS Since writing the above I have been required to send a party of 150 men of this Regt. to Balaclava for the purpose of bringing a small portion (only) of the planking and timber required for the construction of their huts; on the return of these men, they will almost to a man be required to proceed to the trenches for the night, after their 12 miles trip and labour to and from Balaclava, these and other hard duties (for our soldiers sometimes go four days out of the seven in the trenches) coupled with the fact of their being frequently on short rations, imperfectly cooked, from want of time and good weather, cannot, I apprehend, at the present inclement season, but seriously affect the sanitary state of the troops serving in the Crimea.

Fred. Horn
Col. & Lt.Col. 20th. Regt. Comdg.

[This letter is endorsed, in another hand, "Edward Howard Surg 20 Regt." It is further endorsed as follows:]

XX Regiment

Copy of report made by Col Horn to Commissioners of the Duke of Newcastle on sanitary state of the Regt.


to accompany Queries addressed to Officers commanding Regiments


A copy of this letter was also given to Sir John McNeill and Colonel Tulloch at their request.

Fred. Horn


29.

The appended letter refers to the fact of Col. Horn's having received directions from Sir John Hall to despatch a party of 150 men of his Regt. (the 20th.) to Balaclava for the purpose of carrying up their own huts & planking for them & states the grounds upon which the Colonel refused to comply with the Doctors directions upon that subject. The letter of Surgeon Howard of the 20th Regt. through whom the correspondence passes has not been preserved it simple application officially to his Comdg. Officer for the party of soldiers above referred to.—

F.H.


30.

Camp 4th. Division 11th.
January 1855

Sir

In reply to your letter of yesterday's date may I request you to be good enough to present my compliments to the Dep Inspector General and explain to him that the following are the reasons under which I am compelled to decline sending soldiers to Balaclava for the purpose required by your letter of yesterday, as it appears to me clearly the duty of Govt. to provide such transport for the Troops.

You have already acknowledged yourself aware of the cause of the present prevalent and increasing sickness of the Regt under my command and of its consequent inefficiency that it mainly arises from the men being overworked, exposed to the extreme inclemency of the weather, frequent insufficiency of food and oftentimes without time or means of properly cooking it; such being the case, I must beg you will also explain to the Depy. Inspector General that an order now exists in the 4th. Division, that no soldier is permitted to proceed to Balaklava until he has been 24 hours clear of the Trenches.

Supposing therefore at the expiration of the above period of exemption from this very severe duty, I were to send a large party of men to the above named Port, they would on their return from this very toilsome duty & march, be compelled, to a man, again to proceed on duty to the Trenches, there to pass the night in exposure to the cold air after being overheated by their labours of the day, & most probably without having had the time or means of cooking a proper meal before proceeding there. —

Is it, therefore, I ask, surprising that under such circumstances men should fall sick & die or that a regt. should become non-effective and struck off duty (as in the case of the 63rd. Regt.) when such duties are required of it? I do therefore hope the Inspector General will lay this matter more clearly before the Field Marshal than it yet appears to have been done, in order that such serious matters may undergo proper investigation for the guidance of the Authorities and that soldiers may no longer have duties imposed on them beyond the power of endurance intended by nature —

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your most Obdt. & Hmble.
Servant
Fred. Horn
Col & Lt Col XX Regt.Comdg.

Surgeon Howard


31.

CUL Add.9554/5/17

The Gazette announcing the promotions consequent upon the Battles of Alma and Inkerman, had reached the Head-Quarters of the Army of the Crimea; and caused the greatest disappointment and consternation among the Officers and Soldiers of the 20th. Regiment.

Colonel Horn Commanded a Brigade at the Battle of Alma and also at the Battle of Inkerman, where he was slightly wounded, and all the Senior Officers of Staff the 4th Division being either killed or wounded, He brought the Division out of Action.

Brevet Lieut. Colonel Crofton Commanded the Regiment at the Battles of Alma and Inkerman and at the latter Action he placed the Regiment upon his own responsibility in such a position as enabled the Guards to rally under its protection, as stated in the following Extract from Lord Raglan's despatch

"The Brigade of Guards after displaying the utmost steadiness and Gallantry, was obliged to retire before very superior numbers, until supported by a wing of the 20th. Regiment of the 4th. Division, when they again advanced and took the Redoubt." — Lt. Colonel Crofton was then severely wounded in the neck and wrist, and was succeeded in the Command by Major Evelegh who brought the Regiment out of Action.

Captain Buller fought two Companies of the Regiment during the whole day and killed 4 (four) Russians, with his own hand before he retired severely wounded.

The promotion was headed —

"For distinguished services in the Field" but not one of the above officers were noticed, much less promoted, although Lord Raglan took upon himself, the duty of bringing the services of the officers of that Division, before the authorities in the absence of all the Generals, who were either killed or wounded —

The senior Captain Bt. Major Sharpe was also severely wounded (since dead) and 8 other officers —

The following promotions have taken place in the 4th. Division since the Battle of Inkerman

21st. Regt. Major Lord West to be Lt. Col.

57th. do. Bt. Lt. Col. T S Powell / I presume substantive rank

" Major Inglis, and Major Hode [?] Comdg. a Battery Bt. Col [illegible]

The 2 battery coming out of the Battle of Inkerman

Lt. Cols. Powell and Lord West landed 2 days after the Battle of Alma & was not present at Inkerman


32.

manuscript:

It is requested that the enclosed form may be returned when copied

print:

QUERIES ADDRESSED TO OFFICERS COMMANDING CORPS

1st. What portions of the time during which the Army has been in the Crimea have you been with it? – state the dates.

2nd. Since what date have you been in command of the Corps?

3rd. Have the rations of food and forage, as regulated by General Orders, been issued to your Corps during the time it has been in the Crimea? If not be pleased to furnish a return, signed by the Quarter Master, and countersigned by the Commanding Officer, shewing the nature and amount of the deficiencies and the dates of their occurrence.

4th. Has any such irregularity occurred in the issue of the rations by the Commissariat, as to make it impossible to furnish the men with full rations for several days successively? If so state the dates, and the nature of the irregularities.

5th. Have the men been able to cook their food properly? If not what have been the causes.

6th. Has the Cooking been done by men told off for the purpose? If so, from what date.

7th. Have the different articles issued to the men as rations been of good quality? If not, state what articles have not been of good quality and at what time they were issued.

8th. Be pleased to furnish a return, signed by the Quarter Master and countersigned by the Commanding Officer, showing the average weekly strength of the Corps present in Camp, and the number of rations of fresh and of salt meat issued in each week since Landing in the Crimea.

9th. Has soft bread been issued to the Corps or to the Hospital? If so from what date?

10th. Has the Corps been sickly? If so, to what causes is the sickness to be attributed?

11th. Would it in your opinion be beneficial to the men to have more frequent issues of fresh meat?

12th. Would it in your opinion be beneficial to the men to have issues of soft bread instead of biscuit several days in each week?

13th. Has the Corps been sufficiently supplied with vegetables since it landed in the Crimea? If not, state the dates at which the supplies of vegetables were insufficient.

14th. Are you satisfied with the manner in which your men are now rationed? If so state from what date. If not state in what respect you consider the rations now issued defective.

15th. Is it your opinion that a pint of porter would be preferable to the extra ration of Rum now issued.

16th. Has your Corps been able to obtain sufficient fuel since it landed in the Crimea? If not state at what dates it could not be obtained.

17th. Has fuel been issued to the men by the Commissariat, and if so from what date, of what description, and in what quantity?

18th. Be pleased to furnish a return, signed by the Quarter Master, and countersigned by the Commanding Officer, of the warm Clothing and Blankets, issued to your Corps and the dates at which the different articles were issued.

19th. Have you made requisitions for any articles of warm Clothing or Blankets or have you made any representations as to the necessity of supplying them. If so state to whom and at what date.

20th. At what date did you commence to hut your Corps and when were they all hutted?

21st. Has the health and comfort of the men been improved by the change from tents to huts?

22nd. Have you anything further to state regarding the supplies for your Corps? If so state it.

manuscript:

Be pleased to return the answers, numbered consecutively to the orderly room of the 14th. Regt. addressed to me

John McNeill


33.

20th Regiment of Foot

Answers to Queries Addressed to Officers Commanding Corps stationed in the Crimea

1st. The whole time the Regiment has been in the Crimea, since the 14th. September 1854.

2nd. I cannot remember the date about 11 years and upwards ago, and the whole time of its Crimean service.

3rd. They have not, the return is herewith forwarded.

4th. Yes, from 2nd to 12th December 1854, when the Meat Ration was short owing to the Commissariat department having failed to supply it in full. On the 6th Decr. no meat ration whatever was issued, and no Rice was issued from 1st. Decr. 1854 to 10th January 1855.

5th. Yes, since the 19th Novr. 1854, but from the 20 Sept to that date the Meals were irregular in consequence of a scarcity of Camp Kettles, the Men having thrown them off their backs, as they became exhausted on the March, owing to the heat of the weather, a scarcity of water, and the prevalence of diarrhœa at that time. The Camp Kettles were replaced on the 19th Novr 1854.

6th. Yes, from the 19 Novr. 1854.

7th. All the Articles have been of Good Quality, except the fresh meat which has been very bad generally.

8th. The return required is herewith forwarded.

9th. Soft Bread has been issued to the Regiment on the three following dates, viz. 16th Oct 1854 7th 18th April 1855.

10th. The Corps has been very sickly owing to the following most probable causes. Overwork in the trenches, want of sufficient warmth rest and sleep, exposure to bad weather which occasioned soldiers to be but seldom in dry clothes. The Men of the Regt were frequently short of rations during the most inclement season of the Year, yet that short ration required double the time to cook that would have been required in fine weather, and hence much of the exposure of the soldier to cold & rain, and whose Clothes were generally saturated with wet; in which state he was probably compelled to take his short rest, for want of a dry change, added to which, the tents were far from being dry places for soldiers to be in, as most of them leaked fearfully.

There have been many instances in which soldiers have been in the habit of eating their meat uncooked for want of fuel to cook it, and from sheer hunger cold & fatigue.

The Hospital tents did not during the rainy season present a picture of much comfort, nor encourage Men to make known their Complaints, until doubtless many were past recovery, which might otherwise have been restored to perfect health.

Grief and despondency, at that very sad point, must have had their full share in the havoc of the sanatory [sic] state of the soldier.

11th. It would be beneficial to the Men to have more frequent issues of fresh meat if it were of better Quality, tho' the Soldier, from its lean & tough nature often prefer the salt meat ration from which they can make good pea soup.

12th. In my opinion it would be decidedly beneficial.

13th. No. There were no vegetables issued regularly until the 2nd. April 1855, but from the 25th January Potatoes & Onions were received in sufficient quantities to have them and peas which were also supplied alternately, on a few occasions previously to that date small quantities were received.

14th. Yes from the 2nd April 1855 when the issues of preserve [sic] vegetables commenced.

15th. A Pint of porter would be preferable to the Extra ration of rum now issued.

16th. Yes, since the 16 Decr. 1854, but not before that date without great trouble and labour. Since the 16 Decr. 1854 the fuel has had to be brought up from Balaclava by the public animals allowed for the use of the Regiment.

17th. The fuel is of good quality.

18th. The return required is herewith forwarded.

19th. The Requisitions for warm Clothing & Blankets were sent to me by the Quarter Master General, as supplies arrived, they were proportioned to the different divisions.

20th. The Regiment is not hutted, and there are but five huts which are set apart as an Hospital one of which was conveyed from Balaclava to Camp by the Regiment and not at the public expense.

21st. No such change.

22nd. I should like an occasional issue of fresh bread and a daily supply of it for the sick who appear quite loath the hard biscuit many of whom are perfectly unable to eat it.

Fred. Horn
Colonel & Lt Colonel
Commanding 20th Regiment

Copy of answers sent to Sir John McNeill on the 21st April 1855.

FH


34.

This correspondence relates to reports of Gallant Services of Major Butler 20th. Regt. & Sergeant Thaddy Halpin & Corporal Gee of the same corps on the night of 23 March 1855 during one of the most serious sorties of the Russians from the Fortifications of Sevastopol —

F H


35.

Camp over Sebastopol
23rd. April 1855

My dear General

I had closed my letter to you when I read by accident in the 'Times' of the 7th. the following paragraph in the Despatch of F.M. Ld. Raglan. "The working parties were however speedily collected & reformed by Capn. Chapman of the 20th. Regt. Act. Engineer & they at once drove the enemy out of the Trenches with the utmost gallantry". This portion of the F.M's despatch is an entire mistake which I am losing no time in representing to his Lordship so much to the prejudice & injustice of our excellent & gallant Grenr. Captn (Butler) whose noble & gallant conduct has before been brought to your notice. There is no time to be lost in this matter, & I earnestly hope the Authorities will stay their judgement & reward in this matter, in order that poor Butler may not suffer the injustice in seeing another & wrong person reap the benefits of his own personal bravery & very distinguished conduct upon the occasion referred to —

I am &c &c
F W Horn

Major Genl. Sir J B B Estcourt KCB
Adjutant General of the Forces in the Crimea


36.

Camp over Sebastopol 27th. April 1855

Sir

May I have the honor to request you will be pleased to submit for the favourable consideration of the Field Marshal Commanding, the case of two non-comd. Officers of the 20th. Regt. under my command (Sergt. Thaddy Halpin and Corporal John Gee) whose gallant conduct on the night of the 22nd. of March last was such as to induce captain Butler 20th. Regt. (under whose orders they acted) to make a special report of their gallant services upon the night above named to me.

The gallant behaviour of these two non-comd. Officers upon the occasion referred to, would appear to consist in leading on & encouraging the younger soldiers to stand, and occasionally to charge the enemy, by which steady & gallant conduct, captain Butler reports that a very superior force was held in check for a considerable period if not entirely made to retire, by the steady resistance offered by the party. Sergt. Halpin (a very intelligent soldier) received several bayonet wounds having at one period of the skirmish been attacked by three Russians at the same time, whom he beat off wounded; and the conduct of Corporal Gee on the occasion was, as Captain Butler describes it "a perfect pattern of bravery to many of the young soldiers with whom he was engaged that night" — I would have made this representation to the Field Marshal at an earlier period, had I been aware that the number of medals for merit in the Field & for gallantry, was unrestricted; and I now do so in the hope that His Lordship will consider the cases herein named as worthy as worthy [sic] of his recommendation that these Non-Comd. Officers should each obtain a medal for meritorious conduct in the Field.

I have on parade noticed their conduct upon the night in question, to the rest of the Regt, and I have also promoted each of them one step which I consider little enough for the services they are reported by Captain Butler to have rendered on the night of the 22nd. March

I have &c
F H

Colonel Steel CB
Military Secretary
Crimea


37.

H Q Camp. May 6 1855

My dear Colonel

Your letter to the Military Secretary relating to your two N.C. Officers who distinguished themselves on the 22 of March has been referred to me . . and I am desired to tell you that you are mistaken in supposing the number of medals for Distinguished Conduct to have been unrestricted. They were limited to 1 Sgt. 4 Corpl. 10 Privts. per regiment.

But Lord Raglan would be glad to mark their conduct as having been noticed as it deserved to be /for it was undoubtedly very gallant/ and would therefore give them each a gratuity of Five Pounds as he has before done in similar cases if that would meet with your approval —

Believe me
My dear Colonel
Very truly yours
J B Bucknall Estcourt


38.

[This document appears to be a first draft of item 39 following.]

Sir I have the honor of again enclosing to enclose you the accompanying document representation explanatory of the services rendered by the two Non-comd. Officers therein named & for whom I now seek the medal & gratuity for gallant Service in the Field. warrant May I therefore beg you will be pleased to explain to His Lordship the Field Marshal that out of the 15 medals with gratuity to be distributed by the HM's warrant of ——— only one has as yet been given in the Regt. under my comd. & that to a Sergt. there are therefore 4 Corporals & 10 Privates might yet receive these medals of distinction according to the warrant above alluded to —

I further beg you to be good enough to explain to the F M that I have asked for a Corporal's medal & gratuity for Sergt. Halpin as at the time of his gallant conduct on the night of the 22 he was then only holding the rank of Corporal & from which I promoted him to that of Sergt. as a reward for his good services. In the hope that the cases herein stated may meet the favourable consideration of His Lordship & that the two Non Comd. Officers may receive each a medal & gratuity £10 per Corporal

I have the honor to be Sir

Warrants
4th & 14 December


39.

[This document appears to be a second draft of item 38 above.]

Camp over Sevastopol 8th. May 1855

Sir

I have the honor again to enclose you the accompanying representation explanatory of the services rendered on the morning of the 23rd. March 1855 by two Non-comd. Officers of the Regt. under my comd. for whom I now seek the medals & gratuity of corporal (£10) for gallant Service in the Field agreeably under to the warrants of the 4th. & 14th. Decr. 54.

May I beg you will be good enough to explain to the Field Marshal that in reference to these Non-comd. Officers (Sergt. Halpin & Corporal Gee) only 1 medal has as yet been given (to a Sgt.) leaving 4 to be given to Corporals & 10 to Privates so that it would appear that there is no vacancy for Sgt. Halpin to obtain the medal on account of his rank but as he was only a Corporal on the 23rd March and was promoted some days after in consequence of this good service upon that occasion I trust His Lordship the Field Marshal will be pleased to submit his name together with that of Corporal Gee for medals & gratuity of Corporal (£10)

I have &c
Fred. Horn
Col &c — —


40.

Rawling's Hotel, Jermyn St.
4th May

My dear Sir

I have endeavoured to find the letter of the late Sir Bucknall Estcourt of which I mentioned to you some time ago & I think I must have destroyed it as I can find it no where.

I don't, however, think it would have given you much information, tho' it showed that the authorities in the Crimea received my suggestions in good part on behalf of our starving soldiers of that war as I certainly rendered myself liable to a snubbing for volunteering my interference in favor of poor fellows.

I am
Faithfully yours
Fred. Horn

A W Kinglake Esq.


41.

This document is a copy of several other documents, including some already detailed above.

Copy of Military correspondence of Colonel F Horn 20th. Regt. re subjects connected with the late Campagne [sic] in the Crimea


1st. Reply of Sir J B Buknall [sic] Estcourt KCB, Adjutant general of the Forces in the Crimea to Colonel F Horn 20th. Regt. on the subject of mittigating [sic] the hardships and sufferings of the British soldier during the Siege operations before Sebastopol, by the employment of Turkish troops and also by other means. — — —

Note — No copy of the Colonel's appeal to the Adjutant General on this matter has been preserved.


H.Q Camp Nov. 16. 1854

My dear Sir,

Pray do not apologize for writing to me. I am always happy to hear from any officer who has to make a representation. In respect to the subject of your letter I am sorry that the matter has been taken up as it has: because there is no remedy in the hands of Lord Raglan. There is no one who knows so well, or at any rate better, the great hardships which our men are now suffering, and there is no one who would be more anxious to apply a remedy speedily, if any could be found. The effect of our work is evident. The exposure is extreme, the amount of duty is excessive: but where is the remedy? You mention the Turks. In the first place the Turks are doing as much as can be got out of them and saving our own men from working parties. In the second, even if they were not I am not clear that it would do to trust them with the charge of our batteries. However that is a question which does not belong to anyone but Lord Raglan. The disposal of his force no one has a right to question: the only thing we can look into is whether with the available force our men are treated as equally in respect to duty and with as much consideration as the circumstances will admit. Now in what way can we remedy this evil which every one acknowledges? You have but a limited number of men and you have two great operations in hand — Viz a Siege and a Position of Defence against a powerful enemy. —

If we could get rid of the Siege we should do very well against the threatenings upon our rear, but until we do we must bear the great exertions which the circumstances require. This army has to endure great hardships: it has already borne great hardships: it has made great exertions: more are still required. Both these have and will occasion death and sickness on the field of battle and in the camp. —

All this has been and must be borne. We must look our position in the face. As we go on we must do our best to make our position as good as we can: but we shall not cease to be exposed to sickness or death until our campaign has ended.

Our difficulties will always be great, now they are excessive: and let us encourage the men by example and precept to be patient still, tho' difficult it may be, hoping that our reward will be that which every soldier hopes for, viz, a success in the military operation on hand with such distinction as to enable him to say hereafter that he was glad to have been present tho' the laurels were not gathered except with much suffering.

I will watch, you may depend upon it for every opportunity of relieving the men when possible: and if I did not I am sure Lord Raglan would. Do not suppose it is not known what the men are undergoing. I can assure you it has been the subject of much thought and discussion. We have a duty on hand much heavier than our strength is equal to: but if we can pull thro' and if we succeed our credit will be the greater. Such a gale* as we had the other day can hardly happen again, tho' no doubt winter is before us. The whole of the Plateau upon which the two armies are encamped was pretty much in the same state from end to end. I do not suppose there were ten marquees standing including the two Head Quarters French and English. I know there was but one here and I have been told by General Rose that there were none in at [sic] the French H.Q.

I have had a letter from the Secretary at War detailing the liberal exertions which are being made to give clothing and warm under garments to the men: and also to furnish reinforcements. I am sure we may count upon great efforts being made to assist us. We must pull on as we can, enduring much.

Believe me
Very truly Yours
(signed) J B B Estcourt

*The hurricane of the 14th. November 1854 —


Copy of Colonel Horn's reply to Surgeon Howard's (20th. Regt.) official letter demanding that 150 soldiers of the above named corps should be sent off to Balaclava for the purpose of carrying their own huts &c in addition to their other numerous & very hard duties.—

Surgeon Howard's letter is not forthcoming

Camp 4th. Division 11th.
January 1855

Sir

In reply to your letter of yesterday's date may I request you will be good enough to present my compliments to the D Inspector General and explain to him that the following are the reasons under which I am compelled to decline sending soldiers to Balaclava for the purpose required by your letter of yesterday, as it appears to me clearly the duty of Govt. to provide such transport for the Troops.

You have already acknowledged yourself aware of the cause of the present prevalent and increasing sickness of the Regiment under my command and of its consequent inefficiency that it mainly arises from the men being overworked, exposed to the extreme inclemency of the weather, frequent insufficiency of food and oftentimes without time or means to properly cook it; such being the case, I must beg you will also explain to the Depty. Inspector General that an order now exists in the 4th. Division, that no soldier is permitted to proceed to Balaklava until he has been 24 hours clear of the trenches.—

Supposing therefore at the expiration of the above period of exception from this very severe duty, I were to send a large party of men to the above named Post, they would on their return from this very toilsome duty and march, be compelled to a man, again to proceed on duty to the trenches there to pass the night in exposure to the cold air after being overheated by the labours of the day, and most probably without having had the time or means of cooking a proper meal before proceeding there.

Is it, therefore, I ask surprising that under such circumstances men should fall sick and die or that a Regt. should become non-effective, and struck off duty (as is the case with the 63rd. Regt.) when such duties are required of it?—

I do therefore hope the Inspector General will lay this matter more clearly before the Field Marshal than it yet appears to have been done, in order that such serious matters may undergo proper investigation for the guidance of the Authorities and that soldiers may no longer have duties imposed on them beyond the power and of endurance intended by nature —

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your most Obdt. & Hmble.Svt
Fred. Horn
Col & Lt Col 20th Regt.Comdg.

Surgeon Howard
20th. Regt.


Copy of a letter addressed to Col Horn by Commissioners to the Crimea by His Grace the Duke of Newcastle accompanied by certain Queries which latter were replied to tho' no copy thereof is in the Colonels possession at present.


Scutari December 12th. 1854

Sir

Having been instructed by the Duke of Newcastle to make certain enquiries into the condition of the sick and wounded Officers and soldiers of the British Army in the East, we have requested the Principal Medical Officer in charge of your Regt. to favour us with information on the several heads set forth in the enclosed paper.

As many of the matters in question may be within your immediate knowledge, we shall feel obliged by your giving us replies to as many of the queries as you can answer. We shall also feel obliged by any further information which you can give us bearing in any way upon the subject.

We have the honor to be
Sir
Your obedient servants
Signed: A Cummings
P Benson Maxwell
P I Laing

The Officer Commanding the 20th Regt.
You are requested to send your reply to the Post Office Balaklava.


Queries &c as alluded to in foregoing letter —

Scutari, December

Sir

Having been instructed by the Duke of Newcastle to make certain enquiries into the condition of the sick and wounded Officers and soldiers of the British Army in the East, we have to request that you will favour us at your earliest convenience with the following information.—

1st. The number of Medical Officers now present with your Regiment stating their names and rank.

2nd. The number of Orderlies and other Hospital attendants employed and their general fitness for their duties in that capacity.

3rd. The number of tents supplied for hospital accommodation and your opinion as to its sufficiency.

4th. The quality and nature of bed and bedding supplied for each patient together with your opinion as to its sufficiency also the number of close stools, bed pans urinal and other such conveniencies

No.5 General nature and average quantity of medicines and medical comforts usually kept with the Regt?

No.6 The supply of surgical instruments & the means of keeping them in order and repair?

No.7 The means of cooking hospital rations and extras and the adequacy or inadequacy of such means

No.8 The means of carriage supplied for the sick and wounded in the Field, for hospital tents and stores, medicines, medical comforts, provisions and surgical instruments, materials and appliances?

No.9 Is the number of Medical Officers Orderlies or other hospital attendance [sic] under you sufficient? If not, have you at any time applied for more? And if so, what was the result of your application?

No.10 Have you been unable at any time since the landing of your Regiment in the Crimea, and if so how often or how long on each occasion to the best of your recollection to procure on requisition within the ordinary and proper time for obtaining such things as is a supply of any wanted?

No.11 Have you on any occasion since the landing of your regiment in the Crimea been obliged to procure from other quarters, than the purveyor or apothecary any articles comprised under the heads mentioned in the last question, if so state from what quarter you procured them and what the articles were?

We shall feel obliged by any further information and suggestions you can give us bearing in any way upon the above questions.

We have the honor &c
Sir
Your Obedient Servants


Copy of Colonel Horn's letter to the Duke of Newcastle's commissioners the subject of the above mentioned queries —

Camp before Sebastopol, 30th. Decr.1854

Gentlemen

In reply to your letter of the 12th. inst. permit me to state that I consider it needless for me to attempt to answer all the various queries contained in a document which accompanied that communication, the Surgeon of the 20th. Regt. having more accurately replied to them than I was able to do.

It is, however, my duty when called upon to afford all the information in my power on the subject to which it refers, and in doing so in a general way I cannot but deplore the sad want of better arrangements for the restoration of the sick and wounded of the Regiment under my command and of the lamentable results therefrom.

The Ambulance department, from what particular cause I will not attempt to account for, has been next to useless since its establishment in the Crimea, the sick and wounded were in most instances conveyed to Balaclava in jolting Arabas, on the ambulance mules of our allies the French who kindly lent them, and on dragoon chargers, a singular mode of conveying an enfeebled patient six miles, who perhaps even in health had never before mounted a horse.—

There has been throughout the campagne a sad deficiency of tents for the hospital, and the sick have been much exposed in consequence. The surgeon reports to me the want of one of the most useful of medicines where the prevailing sickness is bowel complaint, viz, opium but the chief cause of this prevalent complaint, all seem to agree, arises from the hard work, exposure to inclement weather, and the hitherto difficulty in obtaining proper transport for the comforts of the Troops from Balaclava, and large fatigue parties of soldiers have in addition to their already overworked condition been compelled to wade through the mud to the above named place for the purpose of bringing up their own rations, which the commissariat department failed to do and all other necessaries medical comforts and regimental stores &c &c

I now hear that these poor fellows are expected to carry their own huts when they arrive in the Crimea. There are no bat horses that I can find allotted to the 4th. Division and hence Officers Chargers and private horses have been used to carry the men's rations and latterly dragoon horses also assisted the commissariat but in a very trifling way. I have very little hesitation in saying that due to this sad mismanagement as to the establishment of proper transport for the troops between the Camp and Balaclava much of the prevalent sickness and mortality is attributable.

I have the honor to be
Gentlemen
Your most Obt. & Hble. Servant
Fred. Horn
Col. & Lt.Col. 20th. Regt. Comdg.

To: A Cumming Esqr
P Benson Maxwell Esqr.
P G Laing Esqr.
Balaclava

PS Since writing the above I have been required to send a party of 150 men of this Regt. to Balaclava for the purpose of bringing a small portion (only) of the planking and timber required for the construction of their huts; on the return of these men, they will almost, to a man, be required to proceed to the trenches for the night, after their 12 miles trip and labour to and from Balaclava, these and other hard duties (for our soldiers sometimes go four days out of the seven in the trenches) coupled with the fact of their being frequently on short rations, imperfectly cooked, from want of time and good weather, cannot, I apprehend, at the present inclement season, but seriously affect the sanitary of the troops serving in the Crimea.

Fred. Horn
Col. & Lt.Col. 20th. Regt.Comdg.

A copy of the above letter was furnished to Sir John McNeil and Colonel Tulloch who requested particularly that Col Horn would put them in possession of such documents & correspondence as had passed through him, on the subject of state of things in the Crimea.—


The following queries were addressed to Commanding Officers of corps in the Crimea to which answers were returned:

1st.

Question — What portions of the time during which the Army has been in the Crimea have you been with it, state the date?

Answer — The whole time the Regiment has been in the Crimea, since the 14th. September 1854.

2nd.

Question — Since what date have you been in command of the corps (20th. Rgt.)?

Answer — I cannot remember the date about 11 years and upwards ago, and the whole time of its Crimean service.

3rd.

Question — Have the rations of food and forage as regulated by general orders been issued to your corps during the time it has been in the Crimea? If not be pleased to furnish a return signed by the Quartermaster, and countersigned by the Commanding Officer, showing the nature and amounts of their deficiency, from the date of their occurrence?

Answer — They have not, the return is herewith forwarded.

Question 4th.— Has any such irregularity occurred in the issue of the rations by the Commissariat, as to make it impossible to furnish the men with full rations for several days successively If so state the dates, and the nature of the irregularities?

Answer — Yes, from the 2nd. to the 12th December 1854, when the Meat Ration was short owing to the Commissariat department having failed to supply in full. On the 6th December no meat ration whatever was issued, and no rice was issued from 1st. Decr. 1854 to 10th January 1855.

Question 5.— Have the men been able to cook their food properly? If not what have been the causes.

Answer — Yes, since the 19th Novr. 1854, but from the 20th. Sept to that date the meals were irregular in consequence of a scarcity of camp kettles, the men having thrown them off their backs as they became exhausted on the march owing to the heat of the weather and the scarcity of water and the prevalence of diarrhoea at that time. The camp kettles were replaced on the 19th November 1854.

Question 6th.— Has the cooking been done by men told off for the purpose? If so, from what date.

Answer — Yes, from the 19th. of November 1854.

Question 7th.— Have the different articles issued to the men as rations been of good quality? If not, state what articles have not been of good quality and at what time they were issued.

Answer — All the Articles have been of Good Quality, except the fresh meat which has been very bad generally.

Question 8th.— Be pleased to furnish returns signed by the Quarter Master and countersigned by the Commanding Officer showing the average weekly strength of the corps present in camp and the number of rations of fresh and of salt meat issued in each week since landing in the Crimea?

Answer — The return required is herewith forwarded.

9th.

Question — Has soft bread been issued to the Corps or to the Hospital? If so what date?

Answer — Soft Bread has been issued to the Regt on the 3 following dates, viz. 16 Oct 1854 7th & 18 April 1855.

10.

Question — Has the Corps been sickly if so to what causes is the sickness to be attributed

Answer — The Corps has been very sickly owing to the following most probable. Overwork in the trenches, want of sufficient warmth rest & sleep, exposure to bad weather which occasioned soldiers to be seldom in dry clothes. The men of the Regiment were frequently short of rations during the most inclement season of the year, yet that short ration required double the time to cook it that would have been required in fine weather, and hence much of the exposure of the soldier to cold and rain, and whose clothes were generally saturated with wet, in which state he was probably compelled to take his short rest for want of a dry change, added to which, the tents were far from being dry places for soldiers to be in as most of them leaked fearfully.

11.

Question — Would it in your opinion be beneficial to the men to have more frequent issues of fresh meat?

Answer — It would be more beneficial to the men to have more frequent issues of fresh meat if it were of better quality, tho' the soldiers from its lean & tough nature often prefer the salt meat ration from which they can make good pea soup.

Question 12.— Would it in your opinion be beneficial to the men to have issues of soft bread instead of biscuit several days in each week?

Answer — In my opinion it would be decidedly beneficial.

Question 13.— Has the Corps been sufficiently supplied with vegetables since it landed in the Crimea? If not, state the dates at which the vegetables were insufficient.

Answer — No, there were no vegetables issued regularly until the 2nd. April 1855, but from the 25th January potatoes & onions were received in sufficient quantities, to have them and peas which were also supplied alternately — On a few occasions previously to that date small quantities were received.

Question 14.— Are you satisfied with the manner in which your men are now rationed? If so state from what date, if not, state from what date you consider the rations now issued defective.

Answer — Yes from the 2nd April 1855 when the issues of preserved vegetables commenced.

Question 15t— Is it your opinion that a pint of porter would be preferable to the ration of rum now issued?

Answer — A pint of porter would be preferable to the extra ration of rum now issued.

Question 16.— Has your Corps been able to obtain sufficient fuel since it landed in the Crimea? If not state at what dates it could not be obtained.

Answer — Yes, since the 16 Decr. 1854 but not before that date without great trouble and labour; since the 16th. Decr. 1854 the fuel has had to be brought up from Balaclava by the public animals allowed for the use of the Regiment.

17.

Question — Has the fuel been issued to the men by the Commissariat? if so from what date, of what description, and in what quantity?

Answer — Yes, of good quality.

18.

Question — Be pleased to furnish returns signed by the Quarter Master, and countersigned by the Comdg. Officer, of the warm clothing and blankets issued to your corps and of the dates at which the different articles were issued.

Answer — The return required is herewith forwarded.

19.

Question — Have you made requisitions for any articles of warm clothing or blankets? or have you made any representations as to the necessity of supplying them? If so state to whom and at what date.

Answer — The requisitions for warm clothing & blankets were sent to me by the Quarter Master General, as supplies arrived they were proportioned to the different divisions.

20.

Question — At what date did you commence to Hut your Corps and when were they all Hutted?

Answer — The Regiment is not hutted and there are but five huts which are set apart as an Hospital one of which was conveyed from Balaclava to Camp by the regiment and not at the public expense.

Question 21st.— Has the health and comfort of the men been improved by the change from tents to huts?

Answer — No such change.

Question 22.— Have you anything further to state regarding the supply of your Corps? If so state it.

Answer — I should like an occasional issue of fresh bread and a daily supply of it for the sick who appear quite loath the hard biscuit many of whom are perfectly unable to eat it.

Fred. Horn
Col & Lt Col 20th RegtComdg

Note — The above answers sent to addressed to Sir John McNeill on the 21st April 1855


Copy of a letter in behalf of the gallant services of Capt. Butler XX Regt. & error regarding them in the Times newspaper despatch copied into the Times newspaper.

Camp before Sebastopol 23 April 1855

My dear General

I had closed my letter to you when I read by accident in the 'Times' of the 7th. inst. the following paragraph in the despatch of F.M. Lord Raglan. — "The working parties were however speedily collected & reformed by Capt. Chapman of the 20th. Regt. Acting Engineer & they at once drove the enemy out of the trenches with the utmost gallantry". This portion of the F.M's despatch is an entire mistake (which I am losing no time in representing to His Lordship) so much to the prejudice & injustice of our excellent and gallant grenadr. Captain (Butler) whose noble and gallant conduct has before been brought to your notice. — There is no time to be lost in this matter and I earnestly hope the Authorities will stay their judgement & reward in this matter in order that poor Butler may not suffer the injustice of seeing another and wrong person reap the benefits of his own personal bravery and very distinguished conduct upon the occasion referred to —

I am &c &c
Fred. Horn

Major Genl.
Sir J B B Estcourt KCB
Adjutant General
Crimea

Note — Capt. Butler rec'd Brevet promotion to majority for his gallant behaviour above referred to.


Copy of a Letter to Colonel Steel, Military Secretary on report of Gallant Services before Sevastopol of Non Comd Officers of 20th Regt ——

Camp before Sevastopol 27 April 1855

Sir

May I have the honor to request you will be pleased to submit for the favourable consideration of the Field Marshal Commanding, the cases of two non-commissioned Officers of the 20th. Regt. under my command (Sergt. Thaddy Halpin & Corporal Gee) whose gallant conduct on the night of the 22nd. of March last was such as to induce Captain Butler 20th. Regt. (under whose orders they acted) to make a special report of their gallantry upon the night herein mentioned.

The gallant behaviour of these two non-comd. Officers upon this occasion would appear to consist in leading on & encouraging the younger soldiers to stand and occasionally to charge the enemy, by which steady & gallant conduct, Captain Butler reports that a very superior force was held in check for a considerable period if not entirely made to retire, by the steady resistance offered by the party. Sergt. Halpin (a very intelligent soldier) received several bayonet wounds, having at one period of the skirmish been attacked by 3 Russians at the same time, whom he beat off wounded; and the conduct of Corporal Gee on this occasion was, as Captain Butler describes it "a perfect pattern of bravery to many of the young soldiers with whom he was engaged that night" —

I would have made this representation to the Field Marshal at an earlier period had I been aware that the number of medals for merit in the Field & for gallantry, was unrestricted and I now do so in the hope that His Lordship will consider the cases herein named as worthy of his recommendation that these Non-Comd. Officers should each obtain a medal for meritorious conduct in the Field.

I have on parade noticed their conduct upon the night in question, to the rest of the Regt and I have also promoted each of them one step which I consider little enough for the services they are reported by Captain Butler to have rendered on the night of the 22nd. March

I have the honr to be &c &c
Fred. Horn
Col & Lt Col 20th Regt Comdg

To Colonel Steel
Military Secretary
Crimea


Reply of the Adjutant General to the preceding letter ——

H Q Camp May 6 1855

My dear Colonel

Your letter to the Military Secretary relating to your two N.C. Officers who distinguished themselves on the 22 of March has been referred to me — and I am desired to tell you that you are mistaken in supposing the number of medals for distinguished conduct to have been unrestricted. They were limited to 1 Sgt. 4 Corpls. 10 Privts. per regiment.

But Lord Raglan would be glad to mark their conduct as having been noticed as it deserves to be (for it was undoubtedly very gallant) and would therefore give them each a gratuity of Five pounds as he has before done on similar occasions if that would meet with your approval —

Believe me
My dear Colonel
Very truly yours
(signed) J B B Estcourt


Copy of letter from Col Horn to Sir J B Bucknall Estcourt on same subject ——

Camp before Sevastopol 8th. May 1855

Sir

I have the honor again to enclose you the accompanying representation explanatory of the services rendered on the morning of the 23 March 1855 by two Non-comd. Officers of the Regt. under my command for whom I now seek the medal and gratuity of corporal (£10) for gallant services in the Field under the warrants of the 4th. and 14th. Decr. 54.—

May I beg you will be good enough to explain to the Field Marshal that in reference to these Non-comd. Officers (Sergt. Halpin & Corpl. Gee) only one medal has as yet been given to a Sgt. leaving 4 to be given to corporals & 10 to privates so that it would appear that there is no vacancy for Sgt. Halpin to obtain the medal on account of his rank, but as he was only a corporal on the 22nd March & was promoted some days after in consequence of this good service I trust His Lordship the Field Marshal will be pleased to submit his name together with that of the Corporal's Gee's for the medals & gratuity of a Corporal (£10)

I have &c
Fred. Horn
Col &c — —

The Adjt Genl*

*The effect of this letter was that of obtaining for the Sergt & Corporal the medals & £10 gratuities which was sought for.

F.H.


The XXth at Inkerman The XXth at Sebastopol Welfare of the men Non-Crimean documents The Smyth appeal

Non-Crimean XXth documents


42.

Staff

Horse Guards
25th August 1836

Sir

By desire of His Royal Highness the General Commanding in Chief, I have the honor to acquaint you, that Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint you to serve on the Staff of the Troops at Malta, with the temporary rank of Major General, with a view to your commanding a Brigade at that Station.

Be pleased to report when you will be in readiness to embark for Malta, and if you have any, and what, family for whom accommodation will be required on board ship.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your most obedient humble servant
W F Foster
DAG

Major General F Horn CB
21st Regiment


43.

[This document is annotated: "Map of Malta c 1830's"]

plan of Malta station
44.

Horse Guards
4 April 1844

Lieut General Lord FitzRoy Somerset presents his Compliments to Major Horn and has the honor to acquaint him by direction of The Commander in Chief, that Her Majesty has been pleased to appoint Mr Wm H Ballingall to a 2 Lieutenancy by purchase in the 21 Foot.

Major Horn


45.

City Clerks Office, City Hall
Kingston, April 15, 1850

Sir

I am directed by His Worship the Mayor to transmit to you the annexed Resolution passed at a meeting of the Common Council on the 12th instant.

I have the honor to be
Sir
Your obedient servant
M Flanagan
City Clerk

Lieutenant Colonel Horne
XX Regiment
Kingston

"Resolved, That His Worship the Mayor be requested to convey to Lieutenant Colonel Horne of the XX Regiment, the thanks of this Council, on behalf of the Citizens generally, for his kindness and urbanity towards them during his Command of said Regiment."

J Countere [?]
Mayor


46.

Extract certified
F.I. Griffin
Captain J.D.a.a.G. [?]

Horse Guards
2nd. October 1851

/Extract/

20th. Regiment.

"The Report on the 20th. is very satisfactory, and creditable,— particularly as regards the diminution of Desertion, and the absence of Crime generally."—

I have the honor
&c &c &c
Signed/ Geo. Brown
Adj. General


47.

Montreal 27th. April 1853

Dear Sir

I have much pleasure in transmitting to you the accompanying Copy of a Resolution passed at the Meeting of the Natural History Society on Monday last, as a slight token of the Estimation in which the Twentieth Regt. are held by the Citizens of Montreal,— and in hopes that it will be gratifying to those in whose behalf it is placed at your disposal.

I remain Dear Sir
Yours very Faithfully
A Lachlan
Prest. Nat. Hist. Socy.

Colonel Horn
Comg. 20th. Regt.
&c &c &c

P.S. I may be permitted to add, that should the Officers be disposed to visit the Museum, I shall be happy to meet them at any hour they may appoint & accompany them through the Premises.


48.
Copy

Of Resolution passed at the meeting of the Natural History Society held at their Rooms in Little St James Street on the 25th of April 1853.

Moved by Dr Gibby & seconded by Mr Dutton; — & resolved unanimously.—

That the Museum be thrown open to the Twentieth Regiment, on Two Separate Days of the present or ensuing Week; and that the number of men present in the Building at any one time should not exceed One Hundred.

A Lachlan
President


49.

Camp over Sebastopol
17th. June 1855

My Lord

I have the honor to acknowledge your Lordship's letter of the 1st. inst. acquainting me that Her Majesty had been pleased to approve of my receiving from the grant for Distinguished Service, an allowance of £100 per annum, for which I beg to express to your Lordship my feelings of pride & gratitude at Her Majesty's gracious recognition, upon the present occasion, of my recent services in the East.

I have the honor to be
My Lord
Your Lordship's Most Obdt. Hmble Servant
Fred. Horn
Col & Lt.Col. 20th. Regt. Comdg.

The Viscount Hardinge


50.

20

It is requested that the above heading may be quoted
in subsequent correspondence on the subject with this Department,
and that letters be addressed as follows:–

The Adjutant-General to the Forces,
Horse Guards,
War Office,
London, S.W.

HORSE GUARDS
WAR OFFICE
S.W.


20th. September 1882

Sir

By desire of H.R.H. the Field Marshal Commanding-in-Chief I have the honor to acquaint you that Her Majesty has been graciously pleased to approve of the

Lancashire Fusiliers

being permitted to bear on its Colours the name "Dettingen" in commemoration of the battle fought at that place on the 27th. June, 1743.

I have the honour to be
Sir
Your obedient Servant
[sig illegible] A G

General Sir F Horn KCB
Colonel Lancashire Fusiliers
C/o Messrs Cox & Co


The XXth at Inkerman The XXth at Sebastopol Welfare of the men Non-Crimean documents The Smyth appeal

The Smyth appeal


51.

CONFIDENTIAL

PROPOSED TESTIMONIAL TO MAJOR B. SMYTH, M.V.O


In furtherance of a wish expressed by many past and present officers of the Lancashire Fusiliers. to recognize in some tangible form Major Smyth's many-sided services to the Regiment, and his valuable and responsible work as Editor of our History and Annual. it is proposed to ask his acceptance should the amount of subscription justify it, of a purse of money enclosed in a Silver Box with a suitable Inscription, accompanied by a parchment engrossed with the names of the donors.

All past and present officers of the Nine Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers who wish to join in this mark of appreciation of Major Smyth's work are requested to fill up the accompanying Banker's Order in the manner indicated, or to send their subscriptions, if they prefer to do so, to Colonel Sir Augustus Warren, Bart. (Army and Navy Club), or to Major-General Sir Owen Borne, (United Service Club), or to Colonel Sir Lees Knowles, Bart, M.P., (Westwood. Pendlebury.), these officers having agreed to form an Honorary Testimonial Committee.

Mr Frank Smith, of Messrs Cox and Co., has kindly consented to act as Treasurer to the Fund, which it is proposed to keep open until such date as the Committee may think desirable.

July, 1904


52.

CONFIDENTIAL.

To

132, Sutherland Avenue,
London, W,
July, 1904.

Dear

I venture to send you the enclosed Memorandum as to a Testimonial to Major B. Smyth, MVO., and to ask your kind co-operation in making it known to the Officers now serving in your Battalion or elsewhere. It is not proposed to limit donations or to publish amounts, but it may he hoped that the Fund may collectively reach £100 and upwards, if past and present Officers of the nine Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers support the movement. Information will he sent to all subscribers in due course as to the result of the proposal and the final steps taken in the matter.

Should you and your officers he disposed to support this movement, it might be more convenient to yourselves and to the Committee if you were kind enough, and able, to make a collective Regimental list of subscriptions, including names and amounts, (with authority to Messrs. Cox and Co, to pay the latter) instead of using the separate forms now sent

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
O.T. BURNE.


53.

CONFIDENTIAL.

To

132, Sutherland Avenue.
London. W,
July, 1904.

Dear (Madam)

May I recommend to your notice the enclosed memorandum as to a Testimonial to Major B. Smyth, M. V. 0. Should you be able at the same time to make it known to other officers past or present. of the nine Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers, it will be of great assistance to the movement. The adoption or otherwise of the proposal will depend, of course, on the collective amount of subscription. On this point I may say that it is not intended to place any limit on

donations, or to publish amounts given by individual officers. Information will be given to subscribers in due course as to the result of the proposal and the final steps taken to the matter.

I remain,
Yours faithfully,
O.T. BURNE


54.

[The whole form is crossed: 'Messrs COX & CO. a/c "Smyth Testimonial Fund" ']

SMYTH TESTIMONIAL FUND.

Address ________________________________
________________________________
Date ________________________________

To Messrs._____________________________ Bankers
at ______________________________

Please pay to the account of the SMYTHE TESTIMONIAL FUND at Messrs. Cox & Co. 16, Charing Cross, London S.W. the sum of __________________________________________
as a donation, and communicate to them my full name and address.

Signature ______________________________ [1d stamp]

£        :      s.      d.


This Order should be signed, stamped, and transmitted to the Bankers as above.


55.

CUL Add.9554/5/45

Note

It is proposed to print & send the enclosed memorandum to the Officers Comg our nine Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers, and ask their co-operation in making it known to the Officers now serving in their Battalions, or elsewhere, in the following letter:–

Dear —

I venture to send you the enclosed Memorandum as to a Testimonial to Major B. Smyth, MVO & to ask your kind co-operation in making it known to the Officers now serving in your Battalion or elsewhere. It is not proposed to limit donations nor to publish amounts, but it may he hoped that the Fund may collectively amount to £100 & upwards, if all the nine Battalions of the Lancashire Fusiliers support the movement. Information will he sent to you in due course as to the result of the proposal and the ultimate steps taken by the Committee in the matter. I am, &c,

OTB

The memorandum will also be sent to all past Officers whose names can be ascertained from the Annual or otherwise, in the following letter:—

Dear —

May I recommend to your notice the enclosed memorandum as to a Testimonial to Major B. Smyth MVO. Should you be able at the same time to make it known to other retired officers of your acquaintance it will be of great assistance to the movement. The adoption or otherwise of the proposed Testimonial will depend, of course, on the collective amount of subscription. On this point I may say that it is not proposed to place any limit on donations or to publish amounts given by individual officers. Information will be given to you in due course as to the result of the proposal and the ultimate steps taken by the Committee in the matter. I am, &c

OTB

21 May 1904


Home About Sources Topics Background